International Cooperation

International Cooperation

Working with our energy partners abroad

Information exchange mechanism for EU countries' energy agreements with non-EU countries.

The Energy Community aims to extend the EU's energy market to non-EU countries in the Balkans and the Black Sea region.

Cooperation on energy issues between the EU and the USA.

Cooperation on energy issues between the EU and China.

Cooperation on energy issues between the EU and Russia.

The EU works with international organisations on energy policy.


International cooperation is crucial in responding to global energy challenges such as climate change, environmental protection, and volatile prices.

With global energy demand growing rapidly, the EU faces increasing competition for fossil fuels. It works with its international partners to ensure secure supplies of energy at competitive prices for Europe. At the same time, the success of EU policies to tackle worldwide greenhouse gas emissions also hinges on the energy policies of other countries. 

Intergovernmental agreements made by EU countries

When individual EU countries negotiate international energy agreements with non-EU countries, they share information on these agreements with the European Commission and each other. This is done through the Commission's information exchange mechanism. It ensures that these agreements do not violate EU laws or hamper the internal energy market.

EU cooperation with other countries

Supplier countries

The EU strives to maintain good relations with its key suppliers of natural gas, oil, coal, and other energy resources. In particular, this means working closely with Norway and Russia who supply over half of the EU's gas. It also involves cooperation with OPEC countries who provide over 40% of the EU's oil; states in the Gulf Cooperation Council; and emerging suppliers in Africa, the Americas, and Central Asia and the Caucasus.

Cooperation with supplier countries

China, Russia, the United States and Norway

China, Russia, and the United States are some of the largest economies on earth and their actions have an important impact on EU efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, ensure affordable energy, and enhance security of supply. Energy markets in these countries may also present lucrative opportunities for EU businesses.

Norway is a key energy partner for the EU and major supplier of oil and gas and electricity. It is a member of the European Economic Area Agreement and it applies EU internal energy market rules.

Cooperation with China

Cooperation with Russia

Cooperation with the United States

Cooperation with Norway

The Eastern Partnership


The Eastern Partnership is an initiative to help Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine increase economic, political, and cultural links with the EU. It includes energy security as one of its 'thematic platforms'. The energy work programme for 2014-2017 involves finding ways to promote renewable energy, energy efficiency, nuclear safety, the construction of missing infrastructure links, and to bring partner countries' energy-related rules more in line with EU rules.


European External Action Service

DG Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations

Eastern Partnership Platform on Energy Security

Eastern Partnership Energy Flagship Initiative



The EU launched an annual energy dialogue with Brazil in 2007. The dialogue facilitates the exchange of views in areas such as biofuels, low carbon technologies, and energy efficiency.

Terms of Reference

EU-Brazil relations (European External Action Service)


The EU-India energy dialogue focuses on the development of clean coal technologies, enhancing energy security, increasing energy efficiency, promoting renewables and smart grids, and assisting India in energy market reforms. The EU-India Energy Panel meets once a year to discuss energy related topics. In addition, policy makers and energy stakeholders meet regularly to discuss EU-India energy matters.

Joint Declaration for Enhanced Cooperation on Energy between the European Union and the Government of India

Communication on an EU-India strategic partnership [COM(2004)430]

EU-India relations (European External Action Service)


The EU and Japan discuss topics such as nuclear energy, energy security, and technology through the EU-Japan energy dialogue. Expert-level exchanges on developments in the gas market have also been taking place since 2013.

Summary of expert consultations on gas between the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and DG Energy

Working Conclusions of the Regular Energy Dialogue Meeting, 7 June 2012

EU-Japan relations (European External Action Service)

South Africa

South Africa is a major exporter of coal and it supplies the EU with about 6% of its coal. The EU and South Africa take part in a joint working group every year to discuss coal, clean coal, and carbon capture and storage.

2012 Coal and clean coal meeting  | Part 2

2012 Carbon capture and storage meeting

2009 Coal and clean coal meeting

EU-South Africa relations (European External Action Service)


Turkey is a candidate for EU membership, and as a major energy importing country, energy dialogue with Turkey is particularly important. It is also a potential transit country for natural gas to flow from the Caucuses and Central Asia into the EU. The EU cooperates with Turkey to enable the integration of the Turkish gas and electricity markets into its internal energy market. Turkey is also an observer in the Energy Community.

2012 meeting between the EU and Turkey on energy

2012 Joint statement

EU-Turkey relations (European External Action Service)


Ukraine is a member of the Energy Community since February 2011 and is committed to integrating its energy market with the EU's. It is also a key transit country for EU energy imports from Russia. In particular, over 50% of Russian gas supplies to the EU go through pipelines in Ukraine.

In 2005, the EU and Ukraine signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Energy. The Memorandum  sets out roadmaps for EU-Ukraine cooperation in:

  • the safety of nuclear power plants in Ukraine
  • the integration of Ukraine's electricity and gas markets with the EU internal energy market
  • the security and transit of energy supplies
  • the Ukrainian coal sector
  • energy efficiency and renewables

EU-Ukraine Memorandum of Understanding on Energy

9th Joint EU-Ukraine report on the implementation of the MoU on Energy Cooperation in 2014 en ua

Overview of EU-Ukraine cooperation in energy

EU-Ukraine relations (European External Action Service)

Progress reports on the implementation of the MoU


Algeria is the third biggest supplier of gas to the EU, and the EU is the biggest importer of Algerian gas.
The EU and Algeria have a political dialogue on energy matters ,  launched in 2015, which covers cooperation on natural gas, renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy market integration and infrastructure development.
Two ‘groups of experts’ – one on natural gas and the other on electricity, renewables and energy efficiency - and a business forum are part of the agreement.

Political dialogue on energy matters

Union for the Mediterranean

Launched in 2008, the Union for the Mediterranean promotes economic integration and cooperation amongst the 41 countries in the region, including all EU countries.

In energy, the goal is to create an integrated Mediterranean energy market, and to promote renewables and energy efficiency. This involves the flagship Mediterranean Solar Plan project which aimed to create the regulatory and financial conditions necessary to exploit the region's vast solar and wind resources. In 2015 three platforms for cooperation and partnerships on gas, the regional electricity market, and renewables and energy efficiency, will be launched.

Paving the way to the Mediterranean Solar Plan website

Union for the Mediterranean website

Stakeholders contributions to the 2012 Union for the Mediterranean Energy Ministers meeting

EU cooperation with international organisations

The EU also works with important international energy organisations including the International Energy Agency (IEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Organisation for Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Energy Community – extending the EU's internal market

The Energy Community is an international organisation which aims to integrate neighbouring countries into the EU's internal energy market. The extension of the internal market to these countries is intended to increase regional competition and improve security of supply.

Energy Community website

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